Sample Test For Management Entrance Tests (100 Questions)

  • Reasoning
  • Quantitative Ability
  • Verbal Ability
 

Reasoning

Questions to test Reasoning Ability.

Section I - Data Interpretation & Logical Reasoning

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Directions for Questions 01 to 04: Answer the questions on the basis of the information & graph given below.

The data points in the figure below represent monthly income and expenditure data of individual members of the Ahuja family (\mathbf{\blacksquare }), the Bose family (\mathbf{\square }), the Kumar family (\dpi{100} \fn_jvn \small \mathbf{\bigcirc}), and the Dubey family (\dpi{120} \bullet). For these questions, savings is defined as Savings = Income – Expenditure

01.

Which family has the lowest average income?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 01 to 04: Answer the questions on the basis of the information & graph given below.

The data points in the figure below represent monthly income and expenditure data of individual members of the Ahuja family (\mathbf{\blacksquare }), the Bose family (\mathbf{\square }), the Kumar family (\dpi{100} \fn_jvn \small \mathbf{\bigcirc}), and the Dubey family (\dpi{120} \bullet). For these questions, savings is defined as Savings = Income – Expenditure

02.

Which family has the highest average expenditure?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 01 to 04: Answer the questions on the basis of the information & graph given below.

The data points in the figure below represent monthly income and expenditure data of individual members of the Ahuja family (\mathbf{\blacksquare }), the Bose family (\mathbf{\square }), the Kumar family (\dpi{100} \fn_jvn \small \mathbf{\bigcirc}), and the Dubey family (\dpi{120} \bullet). For these questions, savings is defined as Savings = Income – Expenditure

03.

The highest amount of savings accrues to a member of which family?

1.
2.
3.
4.

View Graph

Directions for Questions 01 to 04: Answer the questions on the basis of the information & graph given below.

The data points in the figure below represent monthly income and expenditure data of individual members of the Ahuja family (\mathbf{\blacksquare }), the Bose family (\mathbf{\square }), the Kumar family (\dpi{100} \fn_jvn \small \mathbf{\bigcirc}), and the Dubey family (\dpi{120} \bullet). For these questions, savings is defined as Savings = Income – Expenditure

04.

Which family has the lowest average savings?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 5 to 8: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.The Dean's office recently scanned student results into the central computer system. When their character reading software cannot read something, it leaves that space blank. The scanner output reads as follows:

In the grading system, A, B, C, D, and F grades fetch 6, 4,3,2, and 0 grade points respectively. The Grade Point Average (GPA) is the arithmetic mean of the grade points obtained in the five subjects. For example Nisha's GPA is (6 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 0) /5 = 3.6. Some additional facts are also known about the students' grades. These are

a. Vipul obtained the same grade in Marketing as Aparna obtained in Finance and Strategy.
b. Fazal obtained the same grade in Strategy as Utkarsh did in Marketing.
c. Tara received the same grade in exactly three courses.

05.What grade did Preeti obtain in Statistics?

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Directions for Questions 5 to 8: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.The Dean's office recently scanned student results into the central computer system. When their character reading software cannot read something, it leaves that space blank. The scanner output reads as follows:

In the grading system, A, B, C, D, and F grades fetch 6, 4,3,2, and 0 grade points respectively. The Grade Point Average (GPA) is the arithmetic mean of the grade points obtained in the five subjects. For example Nisha's GPA is (6 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 0) /5 = 3.6. Some additional facts are also known about the students' grades. These are

a. Vipul obtained the same grade in Marketing as Aparna obtained in Finance and Strategy.
b. Fazal obtained the same grade in Strategy as Utkarsh did in Marketing.
c. Tara received the same grade in exactly three courses.

06.

In Operations, Tara could have received the same grade as

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 5 to 8: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.The Dean's office recently scanned student results into the central computer system. When their character reading software cannot read something, it leaves that space blank. The scanner output reads as follows:

In the grading system, A, B, C, D, and F grades fetch 6, 4,3,2, and 0 grade points respectively. The Grade Point Average (GPA) is the arithmetic mean of the grade points obtained in the five subjects. For example Nisha's GPA is (6 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 0) /5 = 3.6. Some additional facts are also known about the students' grades. These are

a. Vipul obtained the same grade in Marketing as Aparna obtained in Finance and Strategy.
b. Fazal obtained the same grade in Strategy as Utkarsh did in Marketing.
c. Tara received the same grade in exactly three courses.

07.

What grade did Utkarsh obtain in Finance?

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Directions for Questions 5 to 8: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.The Dean's office recently scanned student results into the central computer system. When their character reading software cannot read something, it leaves that space blank. The scanner output reads as follows:

In the grading system, A, B, C, D, and F grades fetch 6, 4,3,2, and 0 grade points respectively. The Grade Point Average (GPA) is the arithmetic mean of the grade points obtained in the five subjects. For example Nisha's GPA is (6 + 2 + 4 + 6 + 0) /5 = 3.6. Some additional facts are also known about the students' grades. These are

a. Vipul obtained the same grade in Marketing as Aparna obtained in Finance and Strategy.
b. Fazal obtained the same grade in Strategy as Utkarsh did in Marketing.
c. Tara received the same grade in exactly three courses.

08.In Strategy, Gouri' s grade point was higher than that obtained by
1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 9 to 12: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. You need to key in your answer.Purana and Naya are two brands of kitchen mixer- grinders available in the local market. Purana is an old brand that was introduced in 1990, while Naya was introduced in 1997. For both these brands, 20% of the mixer- grinders bought in a particular year are disposed off as junk exactly two years later. It is known that 10 Purana mixer-grinders were disposed off in 1997.
The following figures show the number of Purana and Naya mixer-grinders in operation from 1995 to 2000, as at the end of the year:

09.

How many Naya mixer -grinders were purchased in 1999?

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Directions for Questions 9 to 12: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. You need to key in your answer.Purana and Naya are two brands of kitchen mixer- grinders available in the local market. Purana is an old brand that was introduced in 1990, while Naya was introduced in 1997. For both these brands, 20% of the mixer- grinders bought in a particular year are disposed off as junk exactly two years later. It is known that 10 Purana mixer-grinders were disposed off in 1997.
The following figures show the number of Purana and Naya mixer-grinders in operation from 1995 to 2000, as at the end of the year:

10.

How many Naya mixer -grinders were disposed off by the end of2000?

View Graph

Directions for Questions 9 to 12: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. You need to key in your answer.Purana and Naya are two brands of kitchen mixer- grinders available in the local market. Purana is an old brand that was introduced in 1990, while Naya was introduced in 1997. For both these brands, 20% of the mixer- grinders bought in a particular year are disposed off as junk exactly two years later. It is known that 10 Purana mixer-grinders were disposed off in 1997.
The following figures show the number of Purana and Naya mixer-grinders in operation from 1995 to 2000, as at the end of the year:

11.

How many Purana mixer-grinders were purchased in 1999?

View Graph

Directions for Questions 9 to 12: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. You need to key in your answer.Purana and Naya are two brands of kitchen mixer- grinders available in the local market. Purana is an old brand that was introduced in 1990, while Naya was introduced in 1997. For both these brands, 20% of the mixer- grinders bought in a particular year are disposed off as junk exactly two years later. It is known that 10 Purana mixer-grinders were disposed off in 1997.
The following figures show the number of Purana and Naya mixer-grinders in operation from 1995 to 2000, as at the end of the year:

12.

How many Purana mixer-grinders were disposed off in 2000?

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Directions for Questions 13 to 16: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.Prof. Singh has been tracking the number of visitors to his homepage. His service provider has provided him with the following data on the country of origin of the visitors and the university they belong to:

13.

To which country Does University 5 belong?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 13 to 16: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.Prof. Singh has been tracking the number of visitors to his homepage. His service provider has provided him with the following data on the country of origin of the visitors and the university they belong to:

14.

University 1 can belong to

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 13 to 16: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.Prof. Singh has been tracking the number of visitors to his homepage. His service provider has provided him with the following data on the country of origin of the visitors and the university they belong to:

15.

Visitors from how many universities from UK visited Prof. Singh's homepage in the three days?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 13 to 16: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.Prof. Singh has been tracking the number of visitors to his homepage. His service provider has provided him with the following data on the country of origin of the visitors and the university they belong to:

16.

Which among the listed countries can possibly host three of the eight listed universities?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 17 to 20: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.A study was conducted to ascertain the relative importance that employees in five different countries assigned to five different traits in their Chief Executive Officers. The traits were compassion (C), decisiveness (D), negotiation skills (N), public visibility (P), and vision (V). The level of dissimilarity between two countries is the maximum difference in the ranks allotted by the two countries to any of the five traits. The following table indicates the rank order of the five traits for each country.

Country
RankIndiaChinaJapanMalaysiaThailand
1CNDVV
2PCNDC
3NPCPN
4VDVCP
5DVPND

17.

Which of the following countries is least dissimilar to India?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 17 to 20: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.A study was conducted to ascertain the relative importance that employees in five different countries assigned to five different traits in their Chief Executive Officers. The traits were compassion (C), decisiveness (D), negotiation skills (N), public visibility (P), and vision (V). The level of dissimilarity between two countries is the maximum difference in the ranks allotted by the two countries to any of the five traits. The following table indicates the rank order of the five traits for each country.

Country
RankIndiaChinaJapanMalaysiaThailand
1CNDVV
2PCNDC
3NPCPN
4VDVCP
5DVPND

18.

Which amongst the following countries is most dissimilar to India?

1.
2.
3.
4.

View Graph

Directions for Questions 17 to 20: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.A study was conducted to ascertain the relative importance that employees in five different countries assigned to five different traits in their Chief Executive Officers. The traits were compassion (C), decisiveness (D), negotiation skills (N), public visibility (P), and vision (V). The level of dissimilarity between two countries is the maximum difference in the ranks allotted by the two countries to any of the five traits. The following table indicates the rank order of the five traits for each country.

Country
RankIndiaChinaJapanMalaysiaThailand
1CNDVV
2PCNDC
3NPCPN
4VDVCP
5DVPND

19.

Which of the following pairs of countries are most dissimilar?

1.
2.
3.
4.

View Graph

Directions for Questions 17 to 20: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.A study was conducted to ascertain the relative importance that employees in five different countries assigned to five different traits in their Chief Executive Officers. The traits were compassion (C), decisiveness (D), negotiation skills (N), public visibility (P), and vision (V). The level of dissimilarity between two countries is the maximum difference in the ranks allotted by the two countries to any of the five traits. The following table indicates the rank order of the five traits for each country.

Country
RankIndiaChinaJapanMalaysiaThailand
1CNDVV
2PCNDC
3NPCPN
4VDVCP
5DVPND

20.

Three of the following four pairs of countries have identical levels of dissimilarity. Which pair is the odd one out?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Directions for Questions 21 to 22: Each question is followed by two statements, A and B. Key in your answer to each question using the following instructions:Key in (1) if the question can be answered by using one of the statements alone but not by using the other statement alone. Key in (2) if the question can be answered by using either of the statements alone. Key in (3) if the question can be answered by using both statements together but not by either statement alone. Key in (4) if the question cannot be answered on the basis of the two statements.

21.
Four candidates for an award obtain distinct scores in a test. Each of the four casts a vote to choose the winner of the award. The candidate who gets the largest number of votes wins the award. In case of a tie in the voting process, the candidate with the highest score wins the award. Who wins the award?
A: the candidate with top three scores each vote for the top scorer amongst the other three.

B: The candidate with the lowest score votes for the player with the second highest score.

22.
A question is followed by two statements, A and B. Key in your answer to each question using the following instructions:

Key in (1) if the question can be answered by using one of the statements alone but not by using the other statement alone.Key in (2) if the question can be answered by using either of the statements alone. Key in (3) if the question can be answered by using both statements together but not by either statement alone. Key in (4) if the question cannot be answered on the basis of the two statements.

Tarak is standing 2 steps to the left of a red mark and 3 steps to the right of a blue mark. He tosses a coin. If it comes up heads, he moves one step to the right; otherwise he moves one step to the left. He keeps doing this until he reaches one of the two marks, and then he stops. At which mark does he stop? A: He stops after 21 coin tosses. B: He obtains three more tails than heads.

23.In a class of 30 students, Rashmi secured the third rank among the girl while her brother Kumar studying in the same class secured the sixth rank in the whole class. Between the two who had a better overall rank?A: Kumar was among the top 25 % of the boys merit list in the class in which 60% were boysB: There were three boys among the top five rank holder and three girls among the top ten rank holders.

1.
2.
3.
4.

24.Ravi spent less than Rs.75 to buy one kilogram each of potato, onion, and gourd. Which one of the three vegetables bought was the costliest? A: 2 kg potato and 1 kg gourd cost less than 1 kg potato and 2 kg gourd. B: I kg potato and 2 kg onion together cost the same as 1 kg onion and.2 kg gourd.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Directions for Questions 25 to 28: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.Coach John sat with the score cards of Indian players from the 3 games in a one-day cricket tournament where the same set of players played for India and all the major batsmen got out. John summarized the batting performance through three diagrams, one for each game. In each diagram, the three outer triangles communicate the number of runs scored by the three top scorers from India, where K, R, S, V, and Y represent Kaif, Rahul, Saurav, Virender, and Yuvraj respectively.
The middle triangle in each diagram denotes the percentage of total score that was scored by the top three Indian scorers in that game. No two players score the same number of runs in the same game. John also calculated two batting indices for each player based on his scores in the tournament; the R-index of a batsman is the difference between his highest and lowest scores in the 3 games while the M-index is the middle number, if his scores are arranged in a non -increasing order.

25. How many players among those listed definitely scored less than Yuvraj in the tournament?
1.
2.
3.
4.

26. Which of the players had the best M-index from the tournament?
1.
2.
3.
4.

27.For how many Indian players is it possible to calculate the exact M -index?
1.
2.
3.
4.

28.Among the players mentioned, who can have the lowest R-index from the tournament?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Directions for Questions 29 to 32: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.Twenty one participants from four continents (Africa, Americas, Australasia, and Europe) attended a United Nations conference. Each participant was an expert in one of four fields, labour, health, and population studies and refugee relocation. The following five facts about the participants are given. (a) The number of labour experts in the camp was exactly half the number of experts in each of the three other categories (b) Africa did not send any labour expert. Otherwise, every continent, including Africa, sent at least one expert for each category. (c) None of the continents sent more than three experts in any category. (d) If there had been one less Australasian expert, then the Americas would have had twice as many experts as each of the other continents. (e) Mike and Alfanso are leading experts of population studies who attended the conference. They are from Australasia.

29. Alex, an American expert in refugee relocation, was the first keynote speaker in the conference. What can be inferred about the number of American experts in refugee relocation in the conference, excluding Alex?
i. At least one.
ii. At most two:

1.
2.
3.
4.

30.Which of the following numbers cannot be determined from the information given?
1.
2.
3.
4.

31.Which of the following combinations is NOT possible?
1.
2.
3.
4.

32.If Ramos is the lone American expert in population studies, which of the following is NOT true about the number of experts in the conference from the four continents?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Quantitative Ability

Section II - Quantitative Ability

33.

The total number of integer pairs (x, y) satisfying the equation x + y = xy is

34.

Two boats, traveling at 5 and 10 kms per hour, head directly towards each other. They begin at a distance of 20 kms from each other. How far apart are they (in kms) one minute before they collide?

1.
2.
3.
4.

35.

Each family in a locality has at most two adults, and no family has fewer than 3 children. Considering all the families together, there are more adults than boys, more boys than girls, and more girls than families. Then the minimum possible number of families in the locality is

36.

Suppose n is an integer such that the sum of the digits of n is 2, and 1010 < n < 1011. The number of different values for n is

37.

In a Nuts And Bolts factory, one machine produces only nuts at the rate of 100 nuts per minute and needs to be cleaned for 5 minutes after production of every 1000 nuts. Another machine produces only bolts at the rate of 75 bolts per minute and needs to be cleaned for 10 minutes after production of every 1500 bolts. If both the machines start production at the same time, what is the minimum duration required for producing 9000 pairs of nuts and bolts?

1.
2.
3.
4.

38.

On January 1, 2004 two new societies, S1 and S2, are formed, each with n members. On the first day of each subsequent month, S1 adds b members while S2 multiplies its current number of members by a constant factor r. Both the societies have the same number of members on July 2, 2004. If b =10.5 n, what is the value of r?

39.

Karan and Arjun run a 100 meter race, where Karan beats Arjun by 10 metres. To do a favour to Arjun, Karan starts 10 meters behind the starting line in a second 100 meter race. They both run at their earlier speeds. Which of the following is true in connection with the second race?

1.
2.
3.
4.

40.

A father and his son are waiting at a bus stop in the evening. There is a lamp post behind them. The lamp post, the father and his son stand on the same straight line. The father observes that the shadows of his head and his son's head are incident at the same point on the ground. If the heights of the lamp post, the father and his son are 6 meters, 1.8 meters and 0.9 meters respectively, and the father is standing 2.1 meters away from the post, then how far (in meters) is the son standing from his father?

1.
2.
3.
4.

41.

If the sum of the first 11 terms of an arithmetic progression equals that of the first 19 terms, then what is the sum of the first 30 terms?

42.

If     \mathbf{\frac{a}{b+c}=\frac{b}{c+a}=\frac{c}{a+b}=r},   then r cannot take any value except

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 43 to 45: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below:

In the adjoining figure, I and II are circles with centers P and Q respectively. The two circles touch each other and have a common tangent that touches them at points Rand S respectively. This common tangent meets the line joining P and Q at O. The diameters of I and II are in the ratio 4:3, It is also known that the length of PO is 28 cm.

43.

What is the ratio of the length of PQ to that of QO?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 43 to 45: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below:

In the adjoining figure, I and II are circles with centers P and Q respectively. The two circles touch each other and have a common tangent that touches them at points Rand S respectively. This common tangent meets the line joining P and Q at O. The diameters of I and II are in the ratio 4:3, It is also known that the length of PO is 28 cm.

44.

What is the radius of the circle II?

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 43 to 45: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below:

In the adjoining figure, I and II are circles with centers P and Q respectively. The two circles touch each other and have a common tangent that touches them at points Rand S respectively. This common tangent meets the line joining P and Q at O. The diameters of I and II are in the ratio 4:3, It is also known that the length of PO is 28 cm.

45.The length of SO is:
1.
2.
3.
4.

46.

A milkman mixes 20 litres of water with 80 litres of milk. After selling one- fourth of this mixture, he adds water to replenish the quantity that he has sold. What is the current proportion of water to milk?

1.
2.
3.
4.

47.

Let f(x) = ax2- b |x|, where a and b are constants. Then at x = 0, f(x} is

1.
2.
3.
4.

48.

If f (x) = x3 -4x + p, and f(0) and f(1) are of opposite signs, then which of the following is necessarily true?

1.
2.
3.
4.

49.

N persons stand on the circumference of a circle at distinct points. Each possible pair of persons, not standing next to each other, sings a two-minute song one pair after the other. If the total time taken for singing is 28 minutes, what is N?

50.

If a man cycles at 10 km/hr, then he arrives at a certain place at 1 p.m. If he cycles at 15 km/ hr, he will arrive at the same place at 11 a.m. At what speed must he cycle to get there at noon?

1.
2.
3.
4.

51.

If   \mathbf{y=\frac{1}{2+\frac{1}{3+\frac{1}{2+\frac{1}{3+....}}}}}

What is the value of y?

1.
2.
3.
4.

52.

A rectangular sheet of paper, when halved by folding it at the mid point of its longer side, results in a rectangle, whose longer and shorter sides are in the same proportion as the longer and shorter sides of the original rectangle. If the shorter side of the original rectangle is 2, what is the area of the smaller rectangle?

1.
2.
3.
4.

53.

In the adjoining figure, the lines represent one-way roads allowing travel only northwards or only westwards. Along how many distinct routes can a car reach point B from point A?

1.
2.
3.
4.

54.

In the adjoining figure, chord ED is parallel to the diameter AC of the circle. If ∠CBE = 65°, then what is the value of ∠DEC?

1.
2.
3.
4.

55.

If the lengths of diagonals DF, AG and CE of the cube shown in the above figure are equal to the three sides of a triangle, then the radius of the circle circumscribing that triangle will be

56.

A sprinter starts running on a circular path of radius r metres. Her average speed (in metres/minute) is πr during the first 30 seconds, πr/2 during next one minute, πr/4 during next 2 minutes, πr/8 during next 4 minutes, and so on. What is the ratio of the time taken for the nth round to that for the previous round?

1.
2.
3.
4.

57.

Let C be a circle with center P0 and AB be a diameter of C. Suppose P1 is the mid point of the line segment P0B, P2 is the mid point of the line segment P1B and so on. Let C1, C2, C3, ...be circles with diameters P0B, P1B, P2B, P3B, ...... respectively. Suppose the circles C1, C2, C3, ......... are all shaded. The ratio of the area of the unshaded portion of C to that of the original circle C is

1.
2.
3.
4.

58.

A circle with radius 2 is placed against a right angle. Another smaller circle is also placed as shown in the figure given below. What is the radius of the smaller circle?

1.
2.
3.
4.

59.

The remainder, when (1523 + 2323) is divided by 19, is

60.

A new flag is to be designed with six vertical stripes using some or all of the colours yellow, green, blue and red. Then, the number of ways this can be done such that no two adjacent stripes have the same colour is

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 61 and 62: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

f1(x)= x, for 0 ≤ x ≤  1

            1, for x ≥ 1

            0, otherwise

f2(x) = f1(-x), for all x

f3(x) = -f2(x), for all x

f4(x) = f3(-x), for all x

61.

How many of the following products are necessarily zero for every x:

f1(x).f2(x),      f2(x).f3(x),           f2(x).f4(x).

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Directions for Questions 61 and 62: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.

f1(x)= x, for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1

1, for x ≥ 1

0, otherwise

f2(x) = f1(-x), for all x

f3(x) = -f2(x), for all x

f4(x) = f3(-x), for all x

62.

Which of the following is necessarily true?

1.
2.
3.
4.

63.

Consider the sequence of numbers a1, a2, a3 ...to infinity where a1 = 81.33 and a2 = -19 and aj = aj-1 -aj-2 for j > 3. What is the sum of the first 6002 terms of this sequence?

1.
2.
3.
4.

64.

Let u = (log2x)2 -61og2x + 12 where. x is a real number. Then the equation xu = 256, has

1.
2.
3.
4.

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Directions for Questions 65 and 66: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. In an examination, there are 100 questions divided into three groups A, B and C such that each group contains at least one question. Each question in group A carries 1 mark, each question in group B carries 2 marks and each question in group C carries 3 marks. It is known that the questions in group A together carry at least 60% of the total marks.

65.

If group B contains 23 questions, then how many questions are there in group C?

1.
2.
3.
4.

View Graph

Directions for Questions 65 and 66: Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below. In an examination, there are 100 questions divided into three groups A, B and C such that each group contains at least one question. Each question in group A carries 1 mark, each question in group B carries 2 marks and each question in group C carries 3 marks. It is known that the questions in group A together carry at least 60% of the total marks.

66.

If group C contains 8 questions and group B carries at least 20% of the total marks, which of the following best describes the number of questions in group B?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Verbal Ability

Questions to test English language.

Section III - Verbal Ability & Reading Comprehension

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Directions for Questions 67 to 69: The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically? It depends, but the prospects are less than rosy. The trick is converting…several billion dollars in operating costs during the 17-day fiesta of the Games into a basis for long-term economic returns. These days, the summer Olympic Games themselves generate total revenue of $4 billion to $5 billion, but the lion’s share of this goes to the International Olympics Committee, the National Olympics Committees and the International Sports Federations. Any economic benefit would have to flow from the value of the Games as an advertisement for the city, the new transportation and communications infrastructure that was created for the Games, or the ongoing use of the new facilities.

Evidence suggests that the advertising effect is far from certain. The infrastructure benefit depends on the initial condition of the city and the effectiveness of the planning. The facilities benefit is dubious at best for buildings such as velodromes or natatoriums and problematic for 100,000-seat Olympic stadiums. The latter require a conversion plan for future use, the former are usually doomed to near vacancy. Hosting the summer Games generally requires 30-plus sports venues and dozens of training centers. Today, the Bird’s Nest in Beijing sits virtually empty, while the Olympic Stadium in Sydney costs some $30 million a year to operate.

Part of the problem is that Olympics planning takes place in a frenzied and time-pressured atmosphere of intense competition with the other prospective host cities — not optimal conditions for contemplating the future shape of an urban landscape. Another part of the problem is that urban land is generally scarce and growing scarcer. The new facilities often stand for decades or longer. Even if they have future use, are they the best use of precious urban real estate?

Further, cities must consider the human cost. Residential areas often are razed and citizens relocated (without adequate preparation or compensation). Life is made more hectic and congested. There are, after all, other productive uses that can be made of vanishing fiscal resources.

67.

The central point in the first paragraph is that the economic benefits of the Olympic Games

1.
2.
3.
4.

View Directions

Directions for Questions 67 to 69: The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically? It depends, but the prospects are less than rosy. The trick is converting…several billion dollars in operating costs during the 17-day fiesta of the Games into a basis for long-term economic returns. These days, the summer Olympic Games themselves generate total revenue of $4 billion to $5 billion, but the lion’s share of this goes to the International Olympics Committee, the National Olympics Committees and the International Sports Federations. Any economic benefit would have to flow from the value of the Games as an advertisement for the city, the new transportation and communications infrastructure that was created for the Games, or the ongoing use of the new facilities.

Evidence suggests that the advertising effect is far from certain. The infrastructure benefit depends on the initial condition of the city and the effectiveness of the planning. The facilities benefit is dubious at best for buildings such as velodromes or natatoriums and problematic for 100,000-seat Olympic stadiums. The latter require a conversion plan for future use, the former are usually doomed to near vacancy. Hosting the summer Games generally requires 30-plus sports venues and dozens of training centers. Today, the Bird’s Nest in Beijing sits virtually empty, while the Olympic Stadium in Sydney costs some $30 million a year to operate.

Part of the problem is that Olympics planning takes place in a frenzied and time-pressured atmosphere of intense competition with the other prospective host cities — not optimal conditions for contemplating the future shape of an urban landscape. Another part of the problem is that urban land is generally scarce and growing scarcer. The new facilities often stand for decades or longer. Even if they have future use, are they the best use of precious urban real estate?

Further, cities must consider the human cost. Residential areas often are razed and citizens relocated (without adequate preparation or compensation). Life is made more hectic and congested. There are, after all, other productive uses that can be made of vanishing fiscal resources.

68.

Sports facilities built for the Olympics are not fully utilised after the Games are over because

1.
2.
3.
4.

View Directions

Directions for Questions 67 to 69: The passage below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Do sports mega events like the summer Olympic Games benefit the host city economically? It depends, but the prospects are less than rosy. The trick is converting…several billion dollars in operating costs during the 17-day fiesta of the Games into a basis for long-term economic returns. These days, the summer Olympic Games themselves generate total revenue of $4 billion to $5 billion, but the lion’s share of this goes to the International Olympics Committee, the National Olympics Committees and the International Sports Federations. Any economic benefit would have to flow from the value of the Games as an advertisement for the city, the new transportation and communications infrastructure that was created for the Games, or the ongoing use of the new facilities.

Evidence suggests that the advertising effect is far from certain. The infrastructure benefit depends on the initial condition of the city and the effectiveness of the planning. The facilities benefit is dubious at best for buildings such as velodromes or natatoriums and problematic for 100,000-seat Olympic stadiums. The latter require a conversion plan for future use, the former are usually doomed to near vacancy. Hosting the summer Games generally requires 30-plus sports venues and dozens of training centers. Today, the Bird’s Nest in Beijing sits virtually empty, while the Olympic Stadium in Sydney costs some $30 million a year to operate.

Part of the problem is that Olympics planning takes place in a frenzied and time-pressured atmosphere of intense competition with the other prospective host cities — not optimal conditions for contemplating the future shape of an urban landscape. Another part of the problem is that urban land is generally scarce and growing scarcer. The new facilities often stand for decades or longer. Even if they have future use, are they the best use of precious urban real estate?

Further, cities must consider the human cost. Residential areas often are razed and citizens relocated (without adequate preparation or compensation). Life is made more hectic and congested. There are, after all, other productive uses that can be made of vanishing fiscal resources.

69.

The author feels that the Games place a burden on the host city for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that

1.
2.
3.
4.

70.

Directions: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

  1. Those geometric symbols and aerodynamic swooshes are more than just skin deep.
  2. The Commonwealth Bank logo – a yellow diamond, with a black chunk sliced out in one corner – is so recognisable that the bank doesn’t even use its full name in its advertising.
  3. It’s not just logos with hidden shapes; sometimes brands will have meanings or stories within them that are deliberately vague or lost in time, urging you to delve deeper to solve the riddle.
  4. Graphic designers embed cryptic references because it adds a story to the brand; they want people to spend more time with a brand and have that idea that they are an insider if they can understand the hidden message.
  5. But the Comm Bank logo has more to it than meets the eye, as squirrelled away in that diamond is the Southern Cross constellation.

71.

Four sentences A, B, C and D are given below; three of them can be arranged to form a coherent paragraph, but one does not fit into the sequence. Pick the sentence that does not fit into the sequence.

  1. Where government resolve and action can really make a difference is in the area of investment.
  2. The government‟s mid-year review of the economy pares growth estimates for this fiscal down to less than 6%, from the upbeat 7.6% projected six months earlier.
  3. So far, the government has focused on inclusion, which is not a bad thing.
  4. The prediction may have dismayed markets, but this new show of realism should shake the government out of its cocoon of complacence.

72.

Four sentences A, B, C and D are given below; four of them can be arranged to form a coherent paragraph, but one does not fit into the sequence. Pick the sentence that does not fit into the sequence.

  1. It came as something of a surprise when scientists determined that human beings share almost 99 percent of their genetic material with chimpanzees.
  2. Prehuman bipeds predated stone tools, which appeared approximately 2.5 million year ago.
  3. Despite all the is held in common, however, the differences are crucial and allow humans to be allotted their won genus and species, Homo sapiens.
  4. This led one scientific journalist to refer to humans as “the third chimpanzee.”

73.

Four sentences A, B, C and D are given below; four of them can be arranged to form a coherent paragraph, but one does not fit into the sequence. Pick the sentence that does not fit into the sequence.

  1. Nasa could design another rover, equipped with all sorts of life-hunting instrumentation, only to find it is taking the wrong measurements with the wrong detectors.
  2. The reason scientists favour a sample return mission is that they do not know exactly what they are looking for.
  3. Lunar rocks and soil were sealed in bags and only opened in airtight laboratories.
  4. Martian life, for example, could come in many different guises and using equipment designed to detect life on Earth, may not pick it up on Mars.

74.

Four sentences A, B, C and D are given below; four of them can be arranged to form a coherent paragraph, but one does not fit into the sequence. Pick the sentence that does not fit into the sequence.

  1. The pain you feel when you sprain your ankle is taken to cause you to open the freezer in search of an ice pack.
  2. Mind-world interaction is taken for granted in everyday experience and in scientific practice.
  3. Mental causation – the mind‟s causal interaction with the world, and in particular, its influence on behaviour – is central to our conception of ourselves as agents.
  4. It might seem equally obvious that the mind‟s causal role in producing behaviour is also a matter for science to settle.

Read Passage

Directions for Questions 75 to 78: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Recently I spent several hours sitting under a tree in my garden with the social anthropologist William Ury, a Harvard University professor who specializes in the art of negotiation and wrote the bestselling book, Getting to Yes. He captivated me with his theory that tribalism protects people from their fear of rapid change. He explained that the pillars of tribalism that humans rely on for security would always counter any significant cultural or social change. In this way, he said, change is never allowed to happen too fast. Technology, for example, is a pillar of society. Ury believes that every time technology moves in a new or radical direction, another pillar such as religion or nationalism will grow stronger in effect, the traditional and familiar will assume greater importance to compensate for the new and untested. In this manner, human tribes avoid rapid change that leaves people insecure and frightened. But we have all heard that nothing is as permanent as change. Nothing is guaranteed. Pithy expressions, to be sure, but no more than cliches. As Ury says, people don't live that way from day-to-day. On the contrary, they actively seek certainty and stability. They want to know they will be safe. Even so, we scare ourselves constantly with the idea of change. An IBM CEO once said: 'We only re -structure for a good reason, and if we haven't restructured in a while, that's a good reason.' We are scared that competitors, technology and the consumer will put us out of business -so we have to change all the time just to stay alive. But if we asked our fathers and grandfathers, would they have said that they lived in a period of little change? Structure may not have changed much. It may just be the speed with which we do things. Change is over-rated, anyway. Consider the automobile. It's an especially valuable example, because the auto industry has spent tens of billions of dollars on research and product development in the last 100 years. Henry Ford's first car had a metal chassis with an internal combustion, gasoline-powered engine, four wheels with rubber tyres, a foot operated clutch assembly and brake system, a steering wheel, and four seats, and it could safely do 18 miles per hour. A hundred years and tens of thousands of research hours later, we drive cars with a metal chassis with an internal combustion, gasoline-powered engine, four wheels with rubber tyres, a foot operated clutch assembly and brake system, a steering wheel, four seats -and the average speed in London in 2001 was 17.5 miles per hour! That's not a hell of a lot of return for the money. Ford evidently doesn't have much to teach us about change. The fact that they're still manufacturing cars is not proof that Ford Motor Co. is a sound organization, just proof that it takes very large companies to make cars in great quantities making for  almost impregnable entry barrier. Fifty years after the development of the jet engine, planes are also little changed. They've grown bigger, wider and can carry more people. But those are incremental, largely cosmetic changes. Taken together, this lack of real change has come to mean that in travel -whether driving or flying -time and technology have not combined to make things much better. The safety and design have of course accompanied the times and the new volume of cars and flights, but nothing of any significance has changed in the basic assumptions of the final product. At the same time, moving around in cars or aeroplanes becomes less and less efficient all the time. Not only has there been no great change, but also both forms of transport have deteriorated as more people clamour to use them. The same is true for telephones, which took over hundred years to become mobile, or photographic film, which also required an entire century to change. The only explanation for this is anthropological. Once established in calcified organizations, humans do two things: sabotage changes that might render people dispensable, and ensure industry-wide emulation. In the 1960s, German auto companies developed plans to scrap the entire combustion engine for an electrical design. (The same existed in the 1970s in Japan, and in the 1980s in France.) So for 40 years we might have been free of the wasteful and ludicrous dependence on fossil fuels. Why didn't it go anywhere? Because auto executives understood pistons and carburetors, and would be loath to cannibalize their expertise, along with most of their factories.

75.

Which of the following best describes one of the main ideas discussed in the passage?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Read Passage

Directions for Questions 75 to 78: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Recently I spent several hours sitting under a tree in my garden with the social anthropologist William Ury, a Harvard University professor who specializes in the art of negotiation and wrote the bestselling book, Getting to Yes. He captivated me with his theory that tribalism protects people from their fear of rapid change. He explained that the pillars of tribalism that humans rely on for security would always counter any significant cultural or social change. In this way, he said, change is never allowed to happen too fast. Technology, for example, is a pillar of society. Ury believes that every time technology moves in a new or radical direction, another pillar such as religion or nationalism will grow stronger in effect, the traditional and familiar will assume greater importance to compensate for the new and untested. In this manner, human tribes avoid rapid change that leaves people insecure and frightened. But we have all heard that nothing is as permanent as change. Nothing is guaranteed. Pithy expressions, to be sure, but no more than cliches. As Ury says, people don't live that way from day-to-day. On the contrary, they actively seek certainty and stability. They want to know they will be safe. Even so, we scare ourselves constantly with the idea of change. An IBM CEO once said: 'We only re -structure for a good reason, and if we haven't restructured in a while, that's a good reason.' We are scared that competitors, technology and the consumer will put us out of business -so we have to change all the time just to stay alive. But if we asked our fathers and grandfathers, would they have said that they lived in a period of little change? Structure may not have changed much. It may just be the speed with which we do things. Change is over-rated, anyway. Consider the automobile. It's an especially valuable example, because the auto industry has spent tens of billions of dollars on research and product development in the last 100 years. Henry Ford's first car had a metal chassis with an internal combustion, gasoline-powered engine, four wheels with rubber tyres, a foot operated clutch assembly and brake system, a steering wheel, and four seats, and it could safely do 18 miles per hour. A hundred years and tens of thousands of research hours later, we drive cars with a metal chassis with an internal combustion, gasoline-powered engine, four wheels with rubber tyres, a foot operated clutch assembly and brake system, a steering wheel, four seats -and the average speed in London in 2001 was 17.5 miles per hour! That's not a hell of a lot of return for the money. Ford evidently doesn't have much to teach us about change. The fact that they're still manufacturing cars is not proof that Ford Motor Co. is a sound organization, just proof that it takes very large companies to make cars in great quantities making for almost impregnable entry barrier. Fifty years after the development of the jet engine, planes are also little changed. They've grown bigger, wider and can carry more people. But those are incremental, largely cosmetic changes. Taken together, this lack of real change has come to mean that in travel -whether driving or flying -time and technology have not combined to make things much better. The safety and design have of course accompanied the times and the new volume of cars and flights, but nothing of any significance has changed in the basic assumptions of the final product. At the same time, moving around in cars or aeroplanes becomes less and less efficient all the time. Not only has there been no great change, but also both forms of transport have deteriorated as more people clamour to use them. The same is true for telephones, which took over hundred years to become mobile, or photographic film, which also required an entire century to change. The only explanation for this is anthropological. Once established in calcified organizations, humans do two things: sabotage changes that might render people dispensable, and ensure industry-wide emulation. In the 1960s, German auto companies developed plans to scrap the entire combustion engine for an electrical design. (The same existed in the 1970s in Japan, and in the 1980s in France.) So for 40 years we might have been free of the wasteful and ludicrous dependence on fossil fuels. Why didn't it go anywhere? Because auto executives understood pistons and carburetors, and would be loath to cannibalize their expertise, along with most of their factories.

76.

According to the passage, which of the following statements is true?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Read Passage

Directions for Questions 75 to 78: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Recently I spent several hours sitting under a tree in my garden with the social anthropologist William Ury, a Harvard University professor who specializes in the art of negotiation and wrote the bestselling book, Getting to Yes. He captivated me with his theory that tribalism protects people from their fear of rapid change. He explained that the pillars of tribalism that humans rely on for security would always counter any significant cultural or social change. In this way, he said, change is never allowed to happen too fast. Technology, for example, is a pillar of society. Ury believes that every time technology moves in a new or radical direction, another pillar such as religion or nationalism will grow stronger in effect, the traditional and familiar will assume greater importance to compensate for the new and untested. In this manner, human tribes avoid rapid change that leaves people insecure and frightened. But we have all heard that nothing is as permanent as change. Nothing is guaranteed. Pithy expressions, to be sure, but no more than cliches. As Ury says, people don't live that way from day-to-day. On the contrary, they actively seek certainty and stability. They want to know they will be safe. Even so, we scare ourselves constantly with the idea of change. An IBM CEO once said: 'We only re -structure for a good reason, and if we haven't restructured in a while, that's a good reason.' We are scared that competitors, technology and the consumer will put us out of business -so we have to change all the time just to stay alive. But if we asked our fathers and grandfathers, would they have said that they lived in a period of little change? Structure may not have changed much. It may just be the speed with which we do things. Change is over-rated, anyway. Consider the automobile. It's an especially valuable example, because the auto industry has spent tens of billions of dollars on research and product development in the last 100 years. Henry Ford's first car had a metal chassis with an internal combustion, gasoline-powered engine, four wheels with rubber tyres, a foot operated clutch assembly and brake system, a steering wheel, and four seats, and it could safely do 18 miles per hour. A hundred years and tens of thousands of research hours later, we drive cars with a metal chassis with an internal combustion, gasoline-powered engine, four wheels with rubber tyres, a foot operated clutch assembly and brake system, a steering wheel, four seats -and the average speed in London in 2001 was 17.5 miles per hour! That's not a hell of a lot of return for the money. Ford evidently doesn't have much to teach us about change. The fact that they're still manufacturing cars is not proof that Ford Motor Co. is a sound organization, just proof that it takes very large companies to make cars in great quantities making for almost impregnable entry barrier. Fifty years after the development of the jet engine, planes are also little changed. They've grown bigger, wider and can carry more people. But those are incremental, largely cosmetic changes. Taken together, this lack of real change has come to mean that in travel -whether driving or flying -time and technology have not combined to make things much better. The safety and design have of course accompanied the times and the new volume of cars and flights, but nothing of any significance has changed in the basic assumptions of the final product. At the same time, moving around in cars or aeroplanes becomes less and less efficient all the time. Not only has there been no great change, but also both forms of transport have deteriorated as more people clamour to use them. The same is true for telephones, which took over hundred years to become mobile, or photographic film, which also required an entire century to change. The only explanation for this is anthropological. Once established in calcified organizations, humans do two things: sabotage changes that might render people dispensable, and ensure industry-wide emulation. In the 1960s, German auto companies developed plans to scrap the entire combustion engine for an electrical design. (The same existed in the 1970s in Japan, and in the 1980s in France.) So for 40 years we might have been free of the wasteful and ludicrous dependence on fossil fuels. Why didn't it go anywhere? Because auto executives understood pistons and carburetors, and would be loath to cannibalize their expertise, along with most of their factories.

77.

Which of the following views does the author fully support in the passage?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Read Passage

Directions for Questions 75 to 78: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Recently I spent several hours sitting under a tree in my garden with the social anthropologist William Ury, a Harvard University professor who specializes in the art of negotiation and wrote the bestselling book, Getting to Yes. He captivated me with his theory that tribalism protects people from their fear of rapid change. He explained that the pillars of tribalism that humans rely on for security would always counter any significant cultural or social change. In this way, he said, change is never allowed to happen too fast. Technology, for example, is a pillar of society. Ury believes that every time technology moves in a new or radical direction, another pillar such as religion or nationalism will grow stronger in effect, the traditional and familiar will assume greater importance to compensate for the new and untested. In this manner, human tribes avoid rapid change that leaves people insecure and frightened. But we have all heard that nothing is as permanent as change. Nothing is guaranteed. Pithy expressions, to be sure, but no more than cliches. As Ury says, people don't live that way from day-to-day. On the contrary, they actively seek certainty and stability. They want to know they will be safe. Even so, we scare ourselves constantly with the idea of change. An IBM CEO once said: 'We only re -structure for a good reason, and if we haven't restructured in a while, that's a good reason.' We are scared that competitors, technology and the consumer will put us out of business -so we have to change all the time just to stay alive. But if we asked our fathers and grandfathers, would they have said that they lived in a period of little change? Structure may not have changed much. It may just be the speed with which we do things. Change is over-rated, anyway. Consider the automobile. It's an especially valuable example, because the auto industry has spent tens of billions of dollars on research and product development in the last 100 years. Henry Ford's first car had a metal chassis with an internal combustion, gasoline-powered engine, four wheels with rubber tyres, a foot operated clutch assembly and brake system, a steering wheel, and four seats, and it could safely do 18 miles per hour. A hundred years and tens of thousands of research hours later, we drive cars with a metal chassis with an internal combustion, gasoline-powered engine, four wheels with rubber tyres, a foot operated clutch assembly and brake system, a steering wheel, four seats -and the average speed in London in 2001 was 17.5 miles per hour! That's not a hell of a lot of return for the money. Ford evidently doesn't have much to teach us about change. The fact that they're still manufacturing cars is not proof that Ford Motor Co. is a sound organization, just proof that it takes very large companies to make cars in great quantities making for almost impregnable entry barrier. Fifty years after the development of the jet engine, planes are also little changed. They've grown bigger, wider and can carry more people. But those are incremental, largely cosmetic changes. Taken together, this lack of real change has come to mean that in travel -whether driving or flying -time and technology have not combined to make things much better. The safety and design have of course accompanied the times and the new volume of cars and flights, but nothing of any significance has changed in the basic assumptions of the final product. At the same time, moving around in cars or aeroplanes becomes less and less efficient all the time. Not only has there been no great change, but also both forms of transport have deteriorated as more people clamour to use them. The same is true for telephones, which took over hundred years to become mobile, or photographic film, which also required an entire century to change. The only explanation for this is anthropological. Once established in calcified organizations, humans do two things: sabotage changes that might render people dispensable, and ensure industry-wide emulation. In the 1960s, German auto companies developed plans to scrap the entire combustion engine for an electrical design. (The same existed in the 1970s in Japan, and in the 1980s in France.) So for 40 years we might have been free of the wasteful and ludicrous dependence on fossil fuels. Why didn't it go anywhere? Because auto executives understood pistons and carburetors, and would be loath to cannibalize their expertise, along with most of their factories.

78.

According to the passage, the reason why we continued to be dependent on fossil fuels is that:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Directions for Questions 79 to 83: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Read Passage

The painter is now free to paint anything he chooses.. There are scarcely any forbidden subjects, and today everybody is prepared to admit that a painting of some fruit can be as important as a painting of a hero dying. The Impressionists did as much as anybody to win this previously unheard-of freedom for the artist. Yet, by the next generation, painters began to abandon the subject altogether, and began to paint abstract pictures. Today the majority of pictures painted are abstract.Is there a connection between these two developments? Has art gone abstract because the artist is embarrassed by his freedom? Is it that, because he is free to paint anything, he doesn't know what to paint? Apologists for abstract art often talk of it as the art of maximum freedom. But could this be the freedom of the desert island? It would take too long to answer these questions properly. I believe there is a connection. Many things have encouraged the development of abstract art. Among them has been the artists' wish to avoid the difficulties of finding subjects when all subjects are equally possible.I raise the matter now because I want to draw attention to the fact that the painter's choice of a subject is a far more complicated question than it would at first seem. A subject does not start with what is put in front of the easel or with something which the painter happens to remember. A subject starts with the painter deciding he would like to paint such-and-such because for some reason or other he finds it meaningful. A subject begins when the artist selects something for special mention. (What makes it special or meaningful may seem to the artist to be purely visual-its colours or its form.) When the subject has been selected, the function of the painting itself is to communicate and justify the significance of that selection.It is often said today that subject matter is unimportant. But this is only a reaction against the excessively literary and moralistic interpretation of subject matter in the nineteenth century. In truth the subject is literally the beginning and end of a painting. The painting begins with a selection (1 will paint this and not everything else in the world); it is finished when that selection is justified (now you can see all that 1 saw and felt in this and how it is more than merely itself).Thus, for a painting to succeed it is essential that the painter and his public agree about what is significant. The subject may have a personal meaning for the painter or individual spectator; but there must also be the possibility of their agreement on its general meaning. It is at this point that the culture of the society and period in question precedes the artist and his art. Renaissance art would have meant nothing to the Aztecs-and vice versa. If, to some extent, a few intellectuals can appreciate them both today it is because their culture is an historical one: its inspiration is history and therefore it can include within itself, in principle if not in every particular, all known developments to date.When a culture is secure and certain of its values, it presents its artists with subjects. The general agreement about what is significant is so well established that the significance of a particular subject accrues and becomes traditional. This is true, for instance, of reeds and water in China, ()f the nude body in Renaissance, of the animal in Africa. Furthermore, in such cultures the artist is unlikely to be a free agent: he will be employed for the sake of particular Subjects, and the problem, as we have just described it, will not occur to him.When a culture is in a state of disintegration or transition the freedom of the artist increases -but the question of subject matter becomes problematic for him: he, himself, has to choose for society. This was at the basis of all the increasing crises in European art during the nineteenth century. It is too often forgotten how many of the art scandals of that time were provoked by the choice of subject (Gericault, Courbet, Daumier, Degas, Lautrec, Van Gogh, etc.).By the end of the nineteenth century there were, roughly speaking, two ways in which the painter could meet this challenge of deciding what to paint and so choosing for society. Either he identified himself with the people and so allowed their lives to dictate his subjects to him; or he had to find his subjects within himself as painter. By people I mean everybody except the bourgeoisie. Many painters did of course work for the bourgeoisie according to their copy -book of approved subjects, but all of them, filling the Salon and the Royal Academy year after year, are now forgotten, buried under the hypocrisy of those they served so sincerely.

79.

In the sentence, "I believe there is a connection" (second paragraph), what two developments is the author referring to?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Directions for Questions 79 to 83: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Read Passage

The painter is now free to paint anything he chooses.. There are scarcely any forbidden subjects, and today everybody is prepared to admit that a painting of some fruit can be as important as a painting of a hero dying. The Impressionists did as much as anybody to win this previously unheard-of freedom for the artist. Yet, by the next generation, painters began to abandon the subject altogether, and began to paint abstract pictures. Today the majority of pictures painted are abstract.Is there a connection between these two developments? Has art gone abstract because the artist is embarrassed by his freedom? Is it that, because he is free to paint anything, he doesn't know what to paint? Apologists for abstract art often talk of it as the art of maximum freedom. But could this be the freedom of the desert island? It would take too long to answer these questions properly. I believe there is a connection. Many things have encouraged the development of abstract art. Among them has been the artists' wish to avoid the difficulties of finding subjects when all subjects are equally possible.I raise the matter now because I want to draw attention to the fact that the painter's choice of a subject is a far more complicated question than it would at first seem. A subject does not start with what is put in front of the easel or with something which the painter happens to remember. A subject starts with the painter deciding he would like to paint such-and-such because for some reason or other he finds it meaningful. A subject begins when the artist selects something for special mention. (What makes it special or meaningful may seem to the artist to be purely visual-its colours or its form.) When the subject has been selected, the function of the painting itself is to communicate and justify the significance of that selection.It is often said today that subject matter is unimportant. But this is only a reaction against the excessively literary and moralistic interpretation of subject matter in the nineteenth century. In truth the subject is literally the beginning and end of a painting. The painting begins with a selection (1 will paint this and not everything else in the world); it is finished when that selection is justified (now you can see all that 1 saw and felt in this and how it is more than merely itself).Thus, for a painting to succeed it is essential that the painter and his public agree about what is significant. The subject may have a personal meaning for the painter or individual spectator; but there must also be the possibility of their agreement on its general meaning. It is at this point that the culture of the society and period in question precedes the artist and his art. Renaissance art would have meant nothing to the Aztecs-and vice versa. If, to some extent, a few intellectuals can appreciate them both today it is because their culture is an historical one: its inspiration is history and therefore it can include within itself, in principle if not in every particular, all known developments to date.When a culture is secure and certain of its values, it presents its artists with subjects. The general agreement about what is significant is so well established that the significance of a particular subject accrues and becomes traditional. This is true, for instance, of reeds and water in China, ()f the nude body in Renaissance, of the animal in Africa. Furthermore, in such cultures the artist is unlikely to be a free agent: he will be employed for the sake of particular Subjects, and the problem, as we have just described it, will not occur to him.When a culture is in a state of disintegration or transition the freedom of the artist increases -but the question of subject matter becomes problematic for him: he, himself, has to choose for society. This was at the basis of all the increasing crises in European art during the nineteenth century. It is too often forgotten how many of the art scandals of that time were provoked by the choice of subject (Gericault, Courbet, Daumier, Degas, Lautrec, Van Gogh, etc.).By the end of the nineteenth century there were, roughly speaking, two ways in which the painter could meet this challenge of deciding what to paint and so choosing for society. Either he identified himself with the people and so allowed their lives to dictate his subjects to him; or he had to find his subjects within himself as painter. By people I mean everybody except the bourgeoisie. Many painters did of course work for the bourgeoisie according to their copy -book of approved subjects, but all of them, filling the Salon and the Royal Academy year after year, are now forgotten, buried under the hypocrisy of those they served so sincerely.

80.

When a culture is insecure, the painter chooses his subject on the basis of:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Directions for Questions 79 to 83: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Read Passage

The painter is now free to paint anything he chooses.. There are scarcely any forbidden subjects, and today everybody is prepared to admit that a painting of some fruit can be as important as a painting of a hero dying. The Impressionists did as much as anybody to win this previously unheard-of freedom for the artist. Yet, by the next generation, painters began to abandon the subject altogether, and began to paint abstract pictures. Today the majority of pictures painted are abstract.Is there a connection between these two developments? Has art gone abstract because the artist is embarrassed by his freedom? Is it that, because he is free to paint anything, he doesn't know what to paint? Apologists for abstract art often talk of it as the art of maximum freedom. But could this be the freedom of the desert island? It would take too long to answer these questions properly. I believe there is a connection. Many things have encouraged the development of abstract art. Among them has been the artists' wish to avoid the difficulties of finding subjects when all subjects are equally possible.I raise the matter now because I want to draw attention to the fact that the painter's choice of a subject is a far more complicated question than it would at first seem. A subject does not start with what is put in front of the easel or with something which the painter happens to remember. A subject starts with the painter deciding he would like to paint such-and-such because for some reason or other he finds it meaningful. A subject begins when the artist selects something for special mention. (What makes it special or meaningful may seem to the artist to be purely visual-its colours or its form.) When the subject has been selected, the function of the painting itself is to communicate and justify the significance of that selection.It is often said today that subject matter is unimportant. But this is only a reaction against the excessively literary and moralistic interpretation of subject matter in the nineteenth century. In truth the subject is literally the beginning and end of a painting. The painting begins with a selection (1 will paint this and not everything else in the world); it is finished when that selection is justified (now you can see all that 1 saw and felt in this and how it is more than merely itself).Thus, for a painting to succeed it is essential that the painter and his public agree about what is significant. The subject may have a personal meaning for the painter or individual spectator; but there must also be the possibility of their agreement on its general meaning. It is at this point that the culture of the society and period in question precedes the artist and his art. Renaissance art would have meant nothing to the Aztecs-and vice versa. If, to some extent, a few intellectuals can appreciate them both today it is because their culture is an historical one: its inspiration is history and therefore it can include within itself, in principle if not in every particular, all known developments to date.When a culture is secure and certain of its values, it presents its artists with subjects. The general agreement about what is significant is so well established that the significance of a particular subject accrues and becomes traditional. This is true, for instance, of reeds and water in China, ()f the nude body in Renaissance, of the animal in Africa. Furthermore, in such cultures the artist is unlikely to be a free agent: he will be employed for the sake of particular Subjects, and the problem, as we have just described it, will not occur to him.When a culture is in a state of disintegration or transition the freedom of the artist increases -but the question of subject matter becomes problematic for him: he, himself, has to choose for society. This was at the basis of all the increasing crises in European art during the nineteenth century. It is too often forgotten how many of the art scandals of that time were provoked by the choice of subject (Gericault, Courbet, Daumier, Degas, Lautrec, Van Gogh, etc.).By the end of the nineteenth century there were, roughly speaking, two ways in which the painter could meet this challenge of deciding what to paint and so choosing for society. Either he identified himself with the people and so allowed their lives to dictate his subjects to him; or he had to find his subjects within himself as painter. By people I mean everybody except the bourgeoisie. Many painters did of course work for the bourgeoisie according to their copy -book of approved subjects, but all of them, filling the Salon and the Royal Academy year after year, are now forgotten, buried under the hypocrisy of those they served so sincerely.

81.

Which of the following views is taken by the author?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Directions for Questions 79 to 83: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Read Passage

The painter is now free to paint anything he chooses.. There are scarcely any forbidden subjects, and today everybody is prepared to admit that a painting of some fruit can be as important as a painting of a hero dying. The Impressionists did as much as anybody to win this previously unheard-of freedom for the artist. Yet, by the next generation, painters began to abandon the subject altogether, and began to paint abstract pictures. Today the majority of pictures painted are abstract.Is there a connection between these two developments? Has art gone abstract because the artist is embarrassed by his freedom? Is it that, because he is free to paint anything, he doesn't know what to paint? Apologists for abstract art often talk of it as the art of maximum freedom. But could this be the freedom of the desert island? It would take too long to answer these questions properly. I believe there is a connection. Many things have encouraged the development of abstract art. Among them has been the artists' wish to avoid the difficulties of finding subjects when all subjects are equally possible.I raise the matter now because I want to draw attention to the fact that the painter's choice of a subject is a far more complicated question than it would at first seem. A subject does not start with what is put in front of the easel or with something which the painter happens to remember. A subject starts with the painter deciding he would like to paint such-and-such because for some reason or other he finds it meaningful. A subject begins when the artist selects something for special mention. (What makes it special or meaningful may seem to the artist to be purely visual-its colours or its form.) When the subject has been selected, the function of the painting itself is to communicate and justify the significance of that selection.It is often said today that subject matter is unimportant. But this is only a reaction against the excessively literary and moralistic interpretation of subject matter in the nineteenth century. In truth the subject is literally the beginning and end of a painting. The painting begins with a selection (1 will paint this and not everything else in the world); it is finished when that selection is justified (now you can see all that 1 saw and felt in this and how it is more than merely itself).Thus, for a painting to succeed it is essential that the painter and his public agree about what is significant. The subject may have a personal meaning for the painter or individual spectator; but there must also be the possibility of their agreement on its general meaning. It is at this point that the culture of the society and period in question precedes the artist and his art. Renaissance art would have meant nothing to the Aztecs-and vice versa. If, to some extent, a few intellectuals can appreciate them both today it is because their culture is an historical one: its inspiration is history and therefore it can include within itself, in principle if not in every particular, all known developments to date.When a culture is secure and certain of its values, it presents its artists with subjects. The general agreement about what is significant is so well established that the significance of a particular subject accrues and becomes traditional. This is true, for instance, of reeds and water in China, ()f the nude body in Renaissance, of the animal in Africa. Furthermore, in such cultures the artist is unlikely to be a free agent: he will be employed for the sake of particular Subjects, and the problem, as we have just described it, will not occur to him.When a culture is in a state of disintegration or transition the freedom of the artist increases -but the question of subject matter becomes problematic for him: he, himself, has to choose for society. This was at the basis of all the increasing crises in European art during the nineteenth century. It is too often forgotten how many of the art scandals of that time were provoked by the choice of subject (Gericault, Courbet, Daumier, Degas, Lautrec, Van Gogh, etc.).By the end of the nineteenth century there were, roughly speaking, two ways in which the painter could meet this challenge of deciding what to paint and so choosing for society. Either he identified himself with the people and so allowed their lives to dictate his subjects to him; or he had to find his subjects within himself as painter. By people I mean everybody except the bourgeoisie. Many painters did of course work for the bourgeoisie according to their copy -book of approved subjects, but all of them, filling the Salon and the Royal Academy year after year, are now forgotten, buried under the hypocrisy of those they served so sincerely.

82.

Which of the following is NOT necessarily among the attributes needed for a painter to succeed:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Directions for Questions 79 to 83: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Read Passage

The painter is now free to paint anything he chooses.. There are scarcely any forbidden subjects, and today everybody is prepared to admit that a painting of some fruit can be as important as a painting of a hero dying. The Impressionists did as much as anybody to win this previously unheard-of freedom for the artist. Yet, by the next generation, painters began to abandon the subject altogether, and began to paint abstract pictures. Today the majority of pictures painted are abstract.Is there a connection between these two developments? Has art gone abstract because the artist is embarrassed by his freedom? Is it that, because he is free to paint anything, he doesn't know what to paint? Apologists for abstract art often talk of it as the art of maximum freedom. But could this be the freedom of the desert island? It would take too long to answer these questions properly. I believe there is a connection. Many things have encouraged the development of abstract art. Among them has been the artists' wish to avoid the difficulties of finding subjects when all subjects are equally possible.I raise the matter now because I want to draw attention to the fact that the painter's choice of a subject is a far more complicated question than it would at first seem. A subject does not start with what is put in front of the easel or with something which the painter happens to remember. A subject starts with the painter deciding he would like to paint such-and-such because for some reason or other he finds it meaningful. A subject begins when the artist selects something for special mention. (What makes it special or meaningful may seem to the artist to be purely visual-its colours or its form.) When the subject has been selected, the function of the painting itself is to communicate and justify the significance of that selection.It is often said today that subject matter is unimportant. But this is only a reaction against the excessively literary and moralistic interpretation of subject matter in the nineteenth century. In truth the subject is literally the beginning and end of a painting. The painting begins with a selection (1 will paint this and not everything else in the world); it is finished when that selection is justified (now you can see all that 1 saw and felt in this and how it is more than merely itself).Thus, for a painting to succeed it is essential that the painter and his public agree about what is significant. The subject may have a personal meaning for the painter or individual spectator; but there must also be the possibility of their agreement on its general meaning. It is at this point that the culture of the society and period in question precedes the artist and his art. Renaissance art would have meant nothing to the Aztecs-and vice versa. If, to some extent, a few intellectuals can appreciate them both today it is because their culture is an historical one: its inspiration is history and therefore it can include within itself, in principle if not in every particular, all known developments to date.When a culture is secure and certain of its values, it presents its artists with subjects. The general agreement about what is significant is so well established that the significance of a particular subject accrues and becomes traditional. This is true, for instance, of reeds and water in China, ()f the nude body in Renaissance, of the animal in Africa. Furthermore, in such cultures the artist is unlikely to be a free agent: he will be employed for the sake of particular Subjects, and the problem, as we have just described it, will not occur to him.When a culture is in a state of disintegration or transition the freedom of the artist increases -but the question of subject matter becomes problematic for him: he, himself, has to choose for society. This was at the basis of all the increasing crises in European art during the nineteenth century. It is too often forgotten how many of the art scandals of that time were provoked by the choice of subject (Gericault, Courbet, Daumier, Degas, Lautrec, Van Gogh, etc.).By the end of the nineteenth century there were, roughly speaking, two ways in which the painter could meet this challenge of deciding what to paint and so choosing for society. Either he identified himself with the people and so allowed their lives to dictate his subjects to him; or he had to find his subjects within himself as painter. By people I mean everybody except the bourgeoisie. Many painters did of course work for the bourgeoisie according to their copy -book of approved subjects, but all of them, filling the Salon and the Royal Academy year after year, are now forgotten, buried under the hypocrisy of those they served so sincerely.

83.

In the context of the passage, which of the following statements would NOT be true?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Read Passage

Directions for Questions 84 to 87: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Throughout human history the leading causes of death have been infection and trauma. 'Modem medicine has scored significant victories against both, and the major causes of ill health and death are now the chronic degenerative diseases, such as coronary artery disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's, mascular degeneration, cataract and cancer. These have a long latency period before symptoms appear and a diagnosis is made. It follows that the majority of apparently healthy people are pre-ill.But are these conditions inevitably degenerative? A truly preventive medicine that focused on the pre-ill, analysing the metabolic errors which lead to clinical illness, might be able to correct them before the first symptom. Genetic risk factors are known for all the chronic degenerative diseases, and are important to the individuals who possess them. At the population level, however, migration studies confirm that these illnesses are linked for the most part to lifestyle factors - exercise, smoking and nutrition. Nutrition is the easiest of these to change, and the most versatile tool for affecting the metabolic changes needed to tilt the balance away from disease.Many national surveys reveal that malnutrition is common in developed countries . This is not the calorie and/or micro nutrient deficiency associated with developing nations (Type A malnutrition); but multiple micro nutrient depletion, usually combined with calorific balance or excess (Type B malnutrition). The incidence and severity of Type B malnutrition will be shown to be worse if newer micro nutrient groups such as the essential fatty acids, xanthophylls and flavonoids are included in the surveys. Commonly ingested levels of these micro nutrients seem to be far too low in many develop ed countries.There is now considerable evidence that Type B malnutrition is a major cause of chronic degenerative diseases. If this is the case, then it is logical to treat such diseases not with drugs but with multiple micro nutrient repletion, or 'pharmaco- nutrition'. This can take the form of pills and capsules -'nutraceuticals', or food formats known as 'functional foods', This approach has been neglected hitherto because it is relatively unprofitable for drug companies -the products are hard to patent-and it is a strategy which does not sit easily with modem medical Interventionism.Over the last 100 years, the drug industry has invested huge sums in developing a range of subtle and powerful drugs to treat the many diseases we are subject to. Medical training is couched in pharmaceutical terms and this approach has provided us with an exceptional range of therapeutic tools in the treatment of disease and in acute medical emergencies. However, the pharmaceutical model has also created an unhealthy dependency culture, in which relatively few of us accept responsibility for maintaining our own health. Instead, we have handed over this responsibility to health professionals who know very little about health maintenance, or disease prevention.One problem for supporters of this argument is lack of the right kind of hard evidence. We have a wealth of epidemiological data linking dietary factors to health profiles / disease risks, and a great deal of information on mechanism: how food factors interact with our biochemistry. But almost all intervention studies with micro nutrients, with the notable exception of the omega 3 fatty acids, have so far produced conflicting or negative results. In other words, our science appears to have no predictive value. Does this invalidate the science? Or are we simply asking the wrong questions?Based on pharmaceutical thinking, most intervention studies have attempted to measure the impact of a single micro nutrient on the incidence of disease. The classical approach says that if you give a compound formula to test subjects and obtain positive results, you cannot know which ingredient is exerting the benefit, so you must test each ingredient individually. But in the field of nutrition, this does not work. Each intervention on its own will hardly make enough difference to be measured. The best therapeutic response must therefore combine micro nutrients to normalise our internal physiology. So do we need to analyse each individual's nutritional status and then tailor a formula specifically for him or her? While we do not have the resources to analyse millions of individual cases, there is no need to do so. The vast majority of people are consuming suboptimal amounts of most micro nutrients, and most of the micro nutrients concerned are very safe. Accordingly, a comprehensive and universal program of micro nutrient support is probably the most cost-effective and safest way of improving the general health of the nation.

84.

Why are a large number of apparently healthy people deemed pre-ill?

1.
2.
3.
4.

Read Passage

Directions for Questions 84 to 87: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Throughout human history the leading causes of death have been infection and trauma. 'Modem medicine has scored significant victories against both, and the major causes of ill health and death are now the chronic degenerative diseases, such as coronary artery disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's, mascular degeneration, cataract and cancer. These have a long latency period before symptoms appear and a diagnosis is made. It follows that the majority of apparently healthy people are pre-ill.But are these conditions inevitably degenerative? A truly preventive medicine that focused on the pre-ill, analysing the metabolic errors which lead to clinical illness, might be able to correct them before the first symptom. Genetic risk factors are known for all the chronic degenerative diseases, and are important to the individuals who possess them. At the population level, however, migration studies confirm that these illnesses are linked for the most part to lifestyle factors - exercise, smoking and nutrition. Nutrition is the easiest of these to change, and the most versatile tool for affecting the metabolic changes needed to tilt the balance away from disease.Many national surveys reveal that malnutrition is common in developed countries . This is not the calorie and/or micro nutrient deficiency associated with developing nations (Type A malnutrition); but multiple micro nutrient depletion, usually combined with calorific balance or excess (Type B malnutrition). The incidence and severity of Type B malnutrition will be shown to be worse if newer micro nutrient groups such as the essential fatty acids, xanthophylls and flavonoids are included in the surveys. Commonly ingested levels of these micro nutrients seem to be far too low in many develop ed countries.There is now considerable evidence that Type B malnutrition is a major cause of chronic degenerative diseases. If this is the case, then it is logical to treat such diseases not with drugs but with multiple micro nutrient repletion, or 'pharmaco- nutrition'. This can take the form of pills and capsules -'nutraceuticals', or food formats known as 'functional foods', This approach has been neglected hitherto because it is relatively unprofitable for drug companies -the products are hard to patent-and it is a strategy which does not sit easily with modem medical Interventionism.Over the last 100 years, the drug industry has invested huge sums in developing a range of subtle and powerful drugs to treat the many diseases we are subject to. Medical training is couched in pharmaceutical terms and this approach has provided us with an exceptional range of therapeutic tools in the treatment of disease and in acute medical emergencies. However, the pharmaceutical model has also created an unhealthy dependency culture, in which relatively few of us accept responsibility for maintaining our own health. Instead, we have handed over this responsibility to health professionals who know very little about health maintenance, or disease prevention.One problem for supporters of this argument is lack of the right kind of hard evidence. We have a wealth of epidemiological data linking dietary factors to health profiles / disease risks, and a great deal of information on mechanism: how food factors interact with our biochemistry. But almost all intervention studies with micro nutrients, with the notable exception of the omega 3 fatty acids, have so far produced conflicting or negative results. In other words, our science appears to have no predictive value. Does this invalidate the science? Or are we simply asking the wrong questions?Based on pharmaceutical thinking, most intervention studies have attempted to measure the impact of a single micro nutrient on the incidence of disease. The classical approach says that if you give a compound formula to test subjects and obtain positive results, you cannot know which ingredient is exerting the benefit, so you must test each ingredient individually. But in the field of nutrition, this does not work. Each intervention on its own will hardly make enough difference to be measured. The best therapeutic response must therefore combine micro nutrients to normalise our internal physiology. So do we need to analyse each individual's nutritional status and then tailor a formula specifically for him or her? While we do not have the resources to analyse millions of individual cases, there is no need to do so. The vast majority of people are consuming suboptimal amounts of most micro nutrients, and most of the micro nutrients concerned are very safe. Accordingly, a comprehensive and universal program of micro nutrient support is probably the most cost-effective and safest way of improving the general health of the nation.

85.

Type-B malnutrition is a serious concern in developed countries because

1.
2.
3.
4.

Read Passage

Directions for Questions 84 to 87: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Throughout human history the leading causes of death have been infection and trauma. 'Modem medicine has scored significant victories against both, and the major causes of ill health and death are now the chronic degenerative diseases, such as coronary artery disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's, mascular degeneration, cataract and cancer. These have a long latency period before symptoms appear and a diagnosis is made. It follows that the majority of apparently healthy people are pre-ill.
But are these conditions inevitably degenerative? A truly preventive medicine that focused on the pre-ill, analysing the metabolic errors which lead to clinical illness, might be able to correct them before the first symptom. Genetic risk factors are known for all the chronic degenerative diseases, and are important to the individuals who possess them. At the population level, however, migration studies confirm that these illnesses are linked for the most part to lifestyle factors - exercise, smoking and nutrition. Nutrition is the easiest of these to change, and the most versatile tool for affecting the metabolic changes needed to tilt the balance away from disease.
Many national surveys reveal that malnutrition is common in developed countries . This is not the calorie and/or micro nutrient deficiency associated with developing nations (Type A malnutrition); but multiple micro nutrient depletion, usually combined with calorific balance or excess (Type B malnutrition). The incidence and severity of Type B malnutrition will be shown to be worse if newer micro nutrient groups such as the essential fatty acids, xanthophylls and flavonoids are included in the surveys. Commonly ingested levels of these micro nutrients seem to be far too low in many develop ed countries.
There is now considerable evidence that Type B malnutrition is a major cause of chronic degenerative diseases. If this is the case, then it is logical to treat such diseases not with drugs but with multiple micro nutrient repletion, or 'pharmaco- nutrition'. This can take the form of pills and capsules -'nutraceuticals', or food formats known as 'functional foods', This approach has been neglected hitherto because it is relatively unprofitable for drug companies -the products are hard to patent-and it is a strategy which does not sit easily with modem medical Interventionism.
Over the last 100 years, the drug industry has invested huge sums in developing a range of subtle and powerful drugs to treat the many diseases we are subject to. Medical training is couched in pharmaceutical terms and this approach has provided us with an exceptional range of therapeutic tools in the treatment of disease and in acute medical emergencies. However, the pharmaceutical model has also created an unhealthy dependency culture, in which relatively few of us accept responsibility for maintaining our own health. Instead, we have handed over this responsibility to health professionals who know very little about health maintenance, or disease prevention.
One problem for supporters of this argument is lack of the right kind of hard evidence. We have a wealth of epidemiological data linking dietary factors to health profiles / disease risks, and a great deal of information on mechanism: how food factors interact with our biochemistry. But almost all intervention studies with micro nutrients, with the notable exception of the omega 3 fatty acids, have so far produced conflicting or negative results. In other words, our science appears to have no predictive value. Does this invalidate the science? Or are we simply asking the wrong questions?
Based on pharmaceutical thinking, most intervention studies have attempted to measure the impact of a single micro nutrient on the incidence of disease. The classical approach says that if you give a compound formula to test subjects and obtain positive results, you cannot know which ingredient is exerting the benefit, so you must test each ingredient individually. But in the field of nutrition, this does not work. Each intervention on its own will hardly make enough difference to be measured. The best therapeutic response must therefore combine micro nutrients to normalise our internal physiology. So do we need to analyse each individual's nutritional status and then tailor a formula specifically for him or her? While we do not have the resources to analyse millions of individual cases, there is no need to do so. The vast majority of people are consuming suboptimal amounts of most micro nutrients, and most of the micro nutrients concerned are very safe. Accordingly, a comprehensive and universal program of micro nutrient support is probably the most cost-effective and safest way of improving the general health of the nation.

86.

Tailoring micronutrient-based treatment plans to suit individual deficiency profiles is not necessary because

1.
2.
3.
4.

Read Passage

Directions for Questions 84 to 87: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Throughout human history the leading causes of death have been infection and trauma. 'Modem medicine has scored significant victories against both, and the major causes of ill health and death are now the chronic degenerative diseases, such as coronary artery disease, arthritis, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's, mascular degeneration, cataract and cancer. These have a long latency period before symptoms appear and a diagnosis is made. It follows that the majority of apparently healthy people are pre-ill.But are these conditions inevitably degenerative? A truly preventive medicine that focused on the pre-ill, analysing the metabolic errors which lead to clinical illness, might be able to correct them before the first symptom. Genetic risk factors are known for all the chronic degenerative diseases, and are important to the individuals who possess them. At the population level, however, migration studies confirm that these illnesses are linked for the most part to lifestyle factors - exercise, smoking and nutrition. Nutrition is the easiest of these to change, and the most versatile tool for affecting the metabolic changes needed to tilt the balance away from disease.Many national surveys reveal that malnutrition is common in developed countries . This is not the calorie and/or micro nutrient deficiency associated with developing nations (Type A malnutrition); but multiple micro nutrient depletion, usually combined with calorific balance or excess (Type B malnutrition). The incidence and severity of Type B malnutrition will be shown to be worse if newer micro nutrient groups such as the essential fatty acids, xanthophylls and flavonoids are included in the surveys. Commonly ingested levels of these micro nutrients seem to be far too low in many develop ed countries.There is now considerable evidence that Type B malnutrition is a major cause of chronic degenerative diseases. If this is the case, then it is logical to treat such diseases not with drugs but with multiple micro nutrient repletion, or 'pharmaco- nutrition'. This can take the form of pills and capsules -'nutraceuticals', or food formats known as 'functional foods', This approach has been neglected hitherto because it is relatively unprofitable for drug companies -the products are hard to patent-and it is a strategy which does not sit easily with modem medical Interventionism.Over the last 100 years, the drug industry has invested huge sums in developing a range of subtle and powerful drugs to treat the many diseases we are subject to. Medical training is couched in pharmaceutical terms and this approach has provided us with an exceptional range of therapeutic tools in the treatment of disease and in acute medical emergencies. However, the pharmaceutical model has also created an unhealthy dependency culture, in which relatively few of us accept responsibility for maintaining our own health. Instead, we have handed over this responsibility to health professionals who know very little about health maintenance, or disease prevention.One problem for supporters of this argument is lack of the right kind of hard evidence. We have a wealth of epidemiological data linking dietary factors to health profiles / disease risks, and a great deal of information on mechanism: how food factors interact with our biochemistry. But almost all intervention studies with micro nutrients, with the notable exception of the omega 3 fatty acids, have so far produced conflicting or negative results. In other words, our science appears to have no predictive value. Does this invalidate the science? Or are we simply asking the wrong questions?Based on pharmaceutical thinking, most intervention studies have attempted to measure the impact of a single micro nutrient on the incidence of disease. The classical approach says that if you give a compound formula to test subjects and obtain positive results, you cannot know which ingredient is exerting the benefit, so you must test each ingredient individually. But in the field of nutrition, this does not work. Each intervention on its own will hardly make enough difference to be measured. The best therapeutic response must therefore combine micro nutrients to normalise our internal physiology. So do we need to analyse each individual's nutritional status and then tailor a formula specifically for him or her? While we do not have the resources to analyse millions of individual cases, there is no need to do so. The vast majority of people are consuming suboptimal amounts of most micro nutrients, and most of the micro nutrients concerned are very safe. Accordingly, a comprehensive and universal program of micro nutrient support is probably the most cost-effective and safest way of improving the general health of the nation.

87.

The author recommends micronutrient-repletion for large -scale treatment of chronic degenerative diseases because

1.
2.
3.
4.

View Graph

Directions for Questions 88 to 89: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.Humans have a basic need to perceive themselves as part of a grand scheme, of a natural order that has a deeper significance and greater endurance than the petty affairs of daily life. The incongruous mismatch between the futility of the human condition and the brooding majesty of the cosmos compels people to seek a transcendent meaning to underpin their fragile existence.
For thousands of years this broader context was provided by tribal mythology and storytelling. The transporting qualities of those narratives gave human beings a crucial spiritual anchor. All cultures lay claim to haunting myths of other-worldliness: from the dreaming of the Australian Aborigines or the Chronicles of Narnia, from the Nirvana of Buddhism to the Christian Kingdom of Heaven. Over time, the humble campfire stories morphed into the splendour and ritual of organized religion and the great works of drama and literature.
Even in our secular age, where many societies have evolved to a post-religious phase, people still have unfulfilled spiritual yearnings. A project with the scope and profundity of SETI (search for extra-terrestrial intelligence) cannot be divorced from this wider cultural context, for it too offers us the compelling promise that this could happen any day soon. As writer David Brin has pointed out, 'contact with advanced alien civilizations may carry much the same transcendental or hopeful significance as any more traditional notion of "salvation from above". I have argued that if we did make contact with an advanced extraterrestrial community, the entities with which we would be dealing would approach godlike status in our eyes. Certainly they would be more godlike than humanlike; indeed, their powers would be greater than those attributed to most gods in human history.'
So is SETI itself in danger of becoming a latter day religion? Science fiction writer Michael Crichton thought so. He said: "Faith is defined as the firm belief in something for which there is no proof," he explained. "The belief that there are other life forms in the universe
is a matter of faith. There is not a single shred of evidence for any other life forms, and in forty years of searching, none has been discovered." Writer Margaret Wertheim has studied how the concept of space and its inhabitants has evolved over several centuries. She traces the modern notion of aliens to Renaissance writers such as the Roman Catholic Cardinal Nichols of Cusa, who considered the status of man in the universe in relation to celestial beings such as angels.
With the arrival of the scientific age, speculations about alien beings passed from theologians to science fiction writers, but the spiritual dimension remained just below the surface. Occasionally it is made explicit, as in Olaf Stapledon's Star Maker, David Lindsay's A Voyage to Arcturus, or Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind, which is strongly reminiscent of John Bunyan's A Pilgrim's Progress. These are iconic images that resonate deeply with the human psyche, and shadow the scientific quest to discover intelligent life beyond Earth.

88.

It can be inferred from the passage that, ‘Close Encounters of the Third Kind’.

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Directions for Questions 88 to 89: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.Humans have a basic need to perceive themselves as part of a grand scheme, of a natural order that has a deeper significance and greater endurance than the petty affairs of daily life. The incongruous mismatch between the futility of the human condition and the brooding majesty of the cosmos compels people to seek a transcendent meaning to underpin their fragile existence.
For thousands of years this broader context was provided by tribal mythology and storytelling. The transporting qualities of those narratives gave human beings a crucial spiritual anchor. All cultures lay claim to haunting myths of other-worldliness: from the dreaming of the Australian Aborigines or the Chronicles of Narnia, from the Nirvana of Buddhism to the Christian Kingdom of Heaven. Over time, the humble campfire stories morphed into the splendour and ritual of organized religion and the great works of drama and literature.
Even in our secular age, where many societies have evolved to a post-religious phase, people still have unfulfilled spiritual yearnings. A project with the scope and profundity of SETI (search for extra-terrestrial intelligence) cannot be divorced from this wider cultural context, for it too offers us the compelling promise that this could happen any day soon. As writer David Brin has pointed out, 'contact with advanced alien civilizations may carry much the same transcendental or hopeful significance as any more traditional notion of "salvation from above". I have argued that if we did make contact with an advanced extraterrestrial community, the entities with which we would be dealing would approach godlike status in our eyes. Certainly they would be more godlike than humanlike; indeed, their powers would be greater than those attributed to most gods in human history.'
So is SETI itself in danger of becoming a latter day religion? Science fiction writer Michael Crichton thought so. He said: "Faith is defined as the firm belief in something for which there is no proof," he explained. "The belief that there are other life forms in the universe
is a matter of faith. There is not a single shred of evidence for any other life forms, and in forty years of searching, none has been discovered." Writer Margaret Wertheim has studied how the concept of space and its inhabitants has evolved over several centuries. She traces the modern notion of aliens to Renaissance writers such as the Roman Catholic Cardinal Nichols of Cusa, who considered the status of man in the universe in relation to celestial beings such as angels.
With the arrival of the scientific age, speculations about alien beings passed from theologians to science fiction writers, but the spiritual dimension remained just below the surface. Occasionally it is made explicit, as in Olaf Stapledon's Star Maker, David Lindsay's A Voyage to Arcturus, or Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind, which is strongly reminiscent of John Bunyan's A Pilgrim's Progress. These are iconic images that resonate deeply with the human psyche, and shadow the scientific quest to discover intelligent life beyond Earth.

89.

Which of the following statements reflects or captures the author’s view on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence?

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Directions for Questions 90 to 91: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.Among those suffering from the global recession are millions of workers who are not even included in the official statistics : urban recyclers – the trash pickers, sorters, traders and re processors who extricate paper, cardboard and plastics from garbage heaps and prepare them for reuse. Their work is both unrecorded and largely unrecognized, even though in some parts of the World they handle as much as 20% of all waste.
The World’s 15 million informal recyclers clean up cities, prevent some trash from ending in landfills and thus, reduce climate change by saving energy on waste disposal techniques like incineration. In the developed countries they are the preferred ones since they recycle waste much more cheaply and efficiently than governments or private corporations can. In the developing World, on the other hand, they provide the only recycling services except for a few big cities. But as recession hits the markets Worldwide, the price of scrap metal, paper and plastic has also fallen. Recyclers throughout the World are experiencing a sharp drop in income. Trash pickers and scrap dealers saw a decline of as much as 80% in the price of scrap from October 2007 to October 2009. In some countries scrap dealers have shuttered so quickly that researchers at the Solid Waste Management Association didn’t have a chance to record their losses.
In Delhi, some 80% of families in the informal recycling business surveyed by an organization said they had cut back on “luxury foods,” which they defined as fruit, milk and meat. About 41% had stopped buying milk for their children. By this summer, most of those children, already malnourished, hadn’t had a glass of milk in nine months. Many of these children have also cut down on hours spent in school to work alongside their parents. Families have liquidated their most valuable assets – primarily copper from electrical wires – and have stopped sending remittances back to their rural villages. Many have also sold their emergency stores of grain. Their misery is not as familiar as that of the laid-off workers of big name but imploding, service sector corporation, but it is often more tragic.
Few countries have adopted emergency measures to help trash pickers. Brazil, for one, is providing recyclers, or “catadores,” with cheaper food, both through arrangements with local farmers and by offering food subsidies. Other countries, with the support of non-governmental organizations and donor agencies are following Brazil’s example. Unfortunately, most trash pickers operate outside official notice and end up falling through the cracks of programmes like these. In the long run, though, these invisible workers will remain especially vulnerable to economic slowdowns unless they are integrated into the formal business sector, where they can have insurance and reliable wages. This is not hard to accomplish. Informal junk shops should have to apply for licenses, and governments should create or expand doorstep waste collection programmes to employ trash pickers. Instead of sorting through haphazard trash heaps and landfills, the pickers would have access to the cleaner scrap that comes from households.
The need of the hour, however, is a more immediate solution. An efficient but temporary solution would be for governments where they’d have to pay a small subsidy to waste dealers so they could purchase scrap from trash pickers at about 20% above the current price. This increase, if well advertised and broadly utilized, would bring recyclers a higher price and eventually bring them back from the brink. Trash pickers make our cities healthier and more livable. We all stand to gain by making sure that the work of recycling remains sustainable for years to come.

90.

Which of the following has not been an effect of the losses observed in the informal waste recycling?

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Directions for Questions 90 to 91: The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.Among those suffering from the global recession are millions of workers who are not even included in the official statistics : urban recyclers – the trash pickers, sorters, traders and re processors who extricate paper, cardboard and plastics from garbage heaps and prepare them for reuse. Their work is both unrecorded and largely unrecognized, even though in some parts of the World they handle as much as 20% of all waste.
The World’s 15 million informal recyclers clean up cities, prevent some trash from ending in landfills and thus, reduce climate change by saving energy on waste disposal techniques like incineration. In the developed countries they are the preferred ones since they recycle waste much more cheaply and efficiently than governments or private corporations can. In the developing World, on the other hand, they provide the only recycling services except for a few big cities. But as recession hits the markets Worldwide, the price of scrap metal, paper and plastic has also fallen. Recyclers throughout the World are experiencing a sharp drop in income. Trash pickers and scrap dealers saw a decline of as much as 80% in the price of scrap from October 2007 to October 2009. In some countries scrap dealers have shuttered so quickly that researchers at the Solid Waste Management Association didn’t have a chance to record their losses.
In Delhi, some 80% of families in the informal recycling business surveyed by an organization said they had cut back on “luxury foods,” which they defined as fruit, milk and meat. About 41% had stopped buying milk for their children. By this summer, most of those children, already malnourished, hadn’t had a glass of milk in nine months. Many of these children have also cut down on hours spent in school to work alongside their parents. Families have liquidated their most valuable assets – primarily copper from electrical wires – and have stopped sending remittances back to their rural villages. Many have also sold their emergency stores of grain. Their misery is not as familiar as that of the laid-off workers of big name but imploding, service sector corporation, but it is often more tragic.
Few countries have adopted emergency measures to help trash pickers. Brazil, for one, is providing recyclers, or “catadores,” with cheaper food, both through arrangements with local farmers and by offering food subsidies. Other countries, with the support of non-governmental organizations and donor agencies are following Brazil’s example. Unfortunately, most trash pickers operate outside official notice and end up falling through the cracks of programmes like these. In the long run, though, these invisible workers will remain especially vulnerable to economic slowdowns unless they are integrated into the formal business sector, where they can have insurance and reliable wages. This is not hard to accomplish. Informal junk shops should have to apply for licenses, and governments should create or expand doorstep waste collection programmes to employ trash pickers. Instead of sorting through haphazard trash heaps and landfills, the pickers would have access to the cleaner scrap that comes from households.
The need of the hour, however, is a more immediate solution. An efficient but temporary solution would be for governments where they’d have to pay a small subsidy to waste dealers so they could purchase scrap from trash pickers at about 20% above the current price. This increase, if well advertised and broadly utilized, would bring recyclers a higher price and eventually bring them back from the brink. Trash pickers make our cities healthier and more livable. We all stand to gain by making sure that the work of recycling remains sustainable for years to come.

91.

What does the author mean by “Their misery is not as familiar as that of the laid-off workers of big-name but imploding, service sector corporation” as given in the passage?

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Directions for Questions 92 to 95: Four alternative summaries are given below each text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.

92.

Modem bourgeois society, said Nietzsche, was decadent and enfeebled -a victim of the excessive development of the rational faculties at the expense of will and instinct. Against the liberal-rationalist stress on the intellect, Nietzsche urged recognition of the dark mysterious world of instinctual desires - the true forces of life. Smother the will with excessive intellectualizing and you destroy the spontaneity that sparks cultural creativity and ignites a zest for living. The critical and theoretical outlook destroyed the creative instincts. For man's manifold potential to be realized, he must forego relying on the intellect and nurture again the instinctual roots of human existence.

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Directions for Questions 92 to 95: Four alternative summaries are given below each text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.

93.

Local communities have often come in conflict with agents trying to exploit resources, at a faster pace, for an expanding commercial-industrial economy. More often than not, such agents of resource- intensification are given preferential treatment by the state, through the grant of generous long leases over mineral or fish stocks, for example, or the provision of raw material at an enormously subsidized price. With the injustice so compounded, local communities at the receiving end of this process have no resource expert direct action, resisting both the state and outside exploiters through a variety of protest techniques. These struggles might perhaps be seen as a manifestation of a new kind of class conflict.

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Directions for Questions 92 to 95: Four alternative summaries are given below each text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.

94.

You seemed at first to take no notice of your school-fellows, or rather to set yourself against 'them because they were strangers to you. They knew as little of you as you did of them; this would have been the reason for their keeping aloof from you as well, which you would have felt as a hardship. Learn never to conceive a prejudice against others because you know nothing of them. It is bad reasoning, and makes enemies of half the world. Do not think ill of them till they behave ill to you; and then strive to avoid the faults which you see in them. This will disarm their hostility sooner than pique or resentment or complaint.

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Directions for Questions 92 to 95: Four alternative summaries are given below each text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.

95.

The human race is spread all over the world, from the polar regions to the tropics. The people of whom it is made up eat different kinds of food, partly according to the climate in which they live, and partly according to the kind of food which their country produces. In hot climates, meat and fat are not much needed; but in the Arctic regions they seem to be very necessary for keeping up the heat of the body. Thus, in India, people live chiefly on different kinds of grains, eggs, milk, or sometimes fish and meat. In Europe, people eat more meat and less grain. In the Arctic regions, where no grains and fruits are produced, the Eskimo and other races live almost entirely on meat and fish.

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Directions for Questions 96 to 100: The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Decide on the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph and key in this sequence of five alphabets as your answer.

96.

  1. In the west, Allied Forces had fought their way through southern Italy as far as Rome.
  2. In June 1944 Germany's military position in World War Two appeared hopeless.
  3. In Britain, the task of amassing the men and materials for the liberation of northern Europe had been completed.
  4.  The Red Army was poised to drive the Nazis back through Poland.
  5. The situation on the eastern front was catastrophic.

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Directions for Questions 96 to 100: The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Decide on the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph and key in this sequence of five alphabets as your answer.

97.
  1. He felt justified in bypassing Congress altogether on a variety of moves.
  2. At times he was fighting the entire Congress.
  3. Bush felt he had a mission to restore power to the presidency.
  4. Bush was not fighting just the democrats.
  5. Representative democracy is a messy business, and a CEO of the White House does not like a legislature of second guessers and time wasters.

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Directions for Questions 96 to 100: The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Decide on the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph and key in this sequence of five alphabets as your answer.

98.

  1. Experts such as Larry Bums, head of research at GM, reckon that only such a full hearted leap will allow the world to cope with the  mass motorisation that will one day come to China or India.
  2. But once hydrogen is being produced from biomass or extracted from underground coal or made from water, using nuclear or renewable electricity, the way will be open for a huge reduction in carbon emissions from the whole system.
  3. In theory, on ce all the bugs have been sorted out, fuel cells should  deliver better total fuel economy than any existing engines.
  4. That is twice as good as the internal combustion engine, but only five percentage points better than a diesel hybrid.
  5. Allowing for the resources needed to extract hydrogen from hydrocarbon, oil, coal or gas, the fuel cell has an efficiency of 30%.

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Directions for Questions 96 to 100: The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Decide on the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph and key in this sequence of five alphabets as your answer.

99.
  1. But this does not mean that death was the Egyptians' only preoccupation.
  2. Even papyri come mainly from pyramid temples.
  3. Most of our traditional sources of information about the Old Kingdom are monuments of the rich like pyramids and tombs.
  4. Houses in which ordinary Egyptians lived have not been preserved, and when most people died they were buried in simple graves.
  5. We know infinitely more about the wealthy people of Egypt than we do about the ordinary people, as most monuments were made for the rich.

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Directions for Questions 96 to 100: The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Decide on the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph and key in this sequence of five alphabets as your answer.

100.
  1. The process of handing down implies not a passive transfer, but some contestation in defining what exactly is to be handed down.
  2. Wherever Western scholars have worked on the Indian past, the selection is even more apparent and the inventing of a tradition much more recognizable.
  3. Every generation selects what it requires from the past and makes its innovations, some more than others.
  4. It is now a truism to say that traditions are not handed down unchanged, but are invented.
  5. Just as life has death as its opposite, so is tradition by default the opposite of innovation.


 

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